Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are parasitic zoonoses that have been recognised by the WHO as “neglected diseases”. They are a well established cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, particularly in immunocompromised, or low socio-economic status populations. Both of these pathogens are sensitive to environmental change, due to their transmission cycles, that involve non-human hosts. This review article by Lai et al brings together and discusses environmental, and social data from a variety of studies, using a framework developed for examining the environmental determinants of infectious disease. The influence of rising temperatures, variable rainfall patterns, livestock density and increasing agricultural land use on cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis is emphasised, and the critical need for more focused research in countries with limited resources is highlighted.
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